Turkey downgraded to moderate autocracy

Turkey has been downgraded to the status of a “moderate autocracy” in the latest version of the University of Würzburg’s Democracy Matrix.

It ranked 138th out of 176 countries in the matrix’s total value index for 2019, below countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Haiti. 

"Whereas moderate autocracies have some liberalised regimes, most prominently Turkey (electoral regime and intermediate sphere), [but] hard autocracies are restrictive with regard to all dimensions," the report read.

Turkey was previously considered to be a hybrid regime, which exhibits a mixture of characteristics of democracy and autocracy.

The Democracy Matrix (DeMaX) is a tool for measuring the quality of democracy of over 170 countries in the period between 1900 and 2019.

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were the top ranked countries in 2019, while Eritrea, Syria, and North Korea were the lowest.